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The way to Civilisation

Convicts to Bermuda
Page 3
From 1823 to 1850

The Dockyard at Bermuda
Source Bermuda Travel

Convicts to Bermuda. Source of notes: Newspapers of Australia from 1820 to 1850

Introduction notes end with extract dated Monday 31 October 1825
Page 2 Extracts dated from Saturday 15 April 1826 to 1840
Here - Extracts dated from Monday 3 February 1840
Page 4 Extracts dated from Saturday 25 March 1843
Page 5 Extracts dated from Saturday 22 April 1848

The Royal Naval Dockyard at Bermuda in 1848 go here for large image

The Dockyard at Bermuda in 1848

The labels are - Hulk "Tenedos", Naval Hospital, Stone quarry, Cockburn's Cut and Bridge, Batteries, Hulk "Medway', Hulk "Coromandel", Hulk "Dromedary", New Victualling stores building, Keep and Commissioner's House.
Scan of handcoloured, original section of a newspaper page dated 1848, showing a woodcut of the dockyard under construction on HMD Ireland Island Bermuda. The hill towards the left was levelled by quarrying. Illustrated London News, 29 July 1848.


Monday 3 February 1840

The Sydney Monitor and Commercial Advertiser (NSW : 1838 - 1841) Monday 3 February 1840
THE CONVICT SYSTEM - Government has at length determined to get rid of the convict system. The Governors of the penal colonies in Australia have been instructed to discontinue the assignment of convicts as servants to the colonists, and to prepare Norfolk Island for the reception of future convicts; there to be employed and imprisoned, apart from all free settlers. The number of convicts at the hulks in this country and at Bermuda is to be increased, and a model prison on the separate system to contain 500 prisoners, is to be forthwith erected.

Friday 27 March 1840

From the beginning, the convicts despatched from Bermuda were not ordinary criminals, but were men whose position deserved some favour and whose conduct raised hopes of their restitution in society.
The Sydney Herald (NSW : 1831 - 1842) Friday 27 March 1840 Note on Transportation and Secondary Punishment
1 The question of secondary punishment is, at the present time, one of very great importance There have been executed in England and Wales, in the year 18S6, seventeen, in the year 18S7, eight, and in the year 1838, only six persons. The changes made both m the law and in the practice with respect to capital punishment leave the great mass of offcndcrs liable only to penalties short of death
2. The first and greatest of those penalties, in the eye of the law, is transportation. Prisoners capitally convicted, whoso sentence is commuted, and convicts found guilty of the most heinous offences, to which the punishment of death is not affixed, are transported for life, others for fifteen, fourteen, ten, and seven years, which last tcrm is often the punishment of a very trifling larceny, after a second conviction for the same offcnce
2. Recent inquiries have shown that the punishment of transportation is far from being that effective and reforming punishment which it was long considered.
Let us examine the costs of thc question somewhat further.
Supposing, then, convicts not to he sent at all to Australia, let us make some estimate of the charge which would be incurred. The numbci of convicts annually sent to the Australian Colonies may be tnken at 4 000 The average exjiciisc for sending a single male eonv ict to Australia is about 15/
The actual expense, thaetoic, of mere transport, may be taken as about 60,000/ pa annum
The total expendituicpci min m the hulks, m England, is 18/. 12.« lid" Hie average value of labour per man is estimated at 10/ IS? uri, making the average annuil expense per man 7/ 14s 2d
The total cost ot eich boy ni the huryalus Hulk is 13/ 5s 6id
The average annual expense of each prisoner in the House of Correction, Coldhuth Fields, is l3/ los'Id
The average annual expense of each prisoner in the House ot Correction, Wakefield, is 11/ Os S{d
In the general Penitentiaiy, Milbank, the net annual expense ot each prisoucr, deducting his earnings, is IA! 6s Gd. On the other hand, the vaule of labour performed by the prisoners of Bermuda is so great, as to leave an estimated annual profit of Id' 3s 6d , but it is to be remarked, that this estimate supposes that the labour is necessarily to he performcd, and if perfomed in any other way, would entail an expense to the amount of the value estimated
It is theicloie < lear, tint the average expense of each convict kept in the convict hulks in England for a period of four years would not be less than 80/ , if kept m a house ot collection, such as those of Wakefield or Coldbalh Fields would not he less than SSI or 56/ , and if kept in a penitentiary similar to that ot Milbank, would not be less than 9b/
If, therefore, wc suppose that each convict now sent to the Australian Colonies were kept in this country foi a period not exceeding four vyears, which is a very moderate average, such a eliatgc, if the convicts were kept on bond hulks m England, would entail an expense ot 120,000/ a yeur
If kept in prisons, on the Silent System, would be au expense ot 220,000/ a ye it If kept on the Sepuate system, could hardly be less than 360,000/ , ptobahiy much moic
This statement must be compered with Hie expenses incurred in New South Wales, which will be lound in the Report of the Committee.
It must he observed too, that the calculation with respect to the hulks in England is an under statement of the expense The average earnings of the prisoner, likewise, are calculated on the supposttion that the woik done is at all events to be performed But, in order to employ the additional number ot convicts, vvoiks would he undertaken, probably, which would otherwise be orpostponed dispensed with On the other hand, the expenses of military and police establishments m the Australian Colonies would probably, be more


Tuesday 1 September 1840

The Colonist (Sydney, NSW : 1835 - 1840) Tuesday 1 September 1840 Endeavoured to ascertain what efficacy belonged to the punishment of transportation, its moral effect upon the Penal Colonies, and the improvements of which it was susceptible. 'They collected a vast number of facts from credible witnesses, but abstained from stating anything in their Report which did not rest on the authority of official documents; and it was his intent;on to pursue the same course on the present occasion. And first, as to the numbers and condition of the convicts in the Penal Colonies.
The Penal Colonies are, first and largest, New South Wales, founded in 1787. To this place 75,200 have been transported; and in the year: 1836 the number of offenders under punishment there were -men 25,254, women 2577.
The next in magnitude is Van Diem'an's Land, founded in 1804; to which, since 1817, 27,759 convicts have been sent and of which the criminal population, in 1835, consisted of 14,914 men, and 2054 women,
The third is Norfolk Island, a dependency of New South Wales; which contains about 1200 convicts. The last is Bermuda; containing about 900 convicts. Bermuda need not again be referred to, as the condition of the convicts there is nearly the same as that of the convicts in the hulks. My observations will, therefore, be confined to the Australian Colonies.

Friday 23 October 1840

The Sydney Herald (NSW : 1831 - 1842) Friday 23 October 1840 Cessation Of Transportation. The transportation of convicts to tins Colony was not lawful after the 1st August last, mid therefore with the exception of the persons sent out bj the ' Eden' and 'Pekoe,' now on their way to Sydney, no more convicts are expected to nrrnc m 'this Colony We gn e below the Order m Council on the subject The law under which the Order was made, was explained bj the Go\crttoron Tuesday ~~. ending d it is 1 erebv further ordered, bj »he adviof aforesaid, ard in puisuance mid e\er eise of ihc authority aforesaid, that male of fendcrB convicted in the United Kingdom shall, from and after the said 1st daj of August, 1840, m pursunnce of the pros isions of the said last recited Act, be kept to lirrd labor m Her Majesty's colony of Bermuda, and it Is lurther ordered by theatlvjpp aforesaid, mid in pursuance and exercise of the authority pforcsaid, that from and after the said 1st daj of August, IS 10, in pursuance of the provisions of the said last IC eitcd 4ct, be 1 cpt to hard luboui in Her Majesty's colony of Bermuda, and it is further ordei ed by the advice aforesaid, and ni pursuance and exercise of the authontj aforesaid that from and nfter the 1st day of August, 1810, the îespettive Governors, Licutenant-Governors and othei persons for the time being ailmnns tenng the Government of anj of Her Majesties | Colonies shall, in pursuance of the prov isions of the said îecitcd Act of the Gth j ear of the rei.cn of lus s aul late Mnjcstv, bj proclamation tobe by them res,.>ectivc'v *°r t'lut purpose issued, appoint the place o.~ «wes «ithtn Hci Majcsty's dominions to which \ny ^"aua convicted in any such colonies, and being undti ;an,tcncc or order of transportation, shall be sent or trans- ported, prov ided that neither the saul colonj of Bermuda, nor anj of Her Majesty's colonies in New Holland, or m the Southern Ocean, be so appointed for that purpose by anj such procla- mation as aforesaid, other than the saul island of Van Dicnian's Land anti Noifolk Island, mid the islands adjacent to and comprised within the Government of Van Dicnian's Land And the Most Noble the Marquis of Nornnnbj, and the Right Ken oi able Lord John Russell, two of Hci Majesty's r.mcipal Secretaries of State, are to give the neccssarj instructions herein accord ingly as to them may respectiv ely appertain WM. L. BATHURST.

Tuesday 27 October 1840

Australasian Chronicle (Sydney, NSW : 1839 - 1843) Tuesday 27 October 1840 TRANSPORTATION. — ORDER IN COUNCIL. At the court at Buckingham Palace, the 22nd day of May, 1840. Present: the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty in Council. Whereas, by an act passed in the fifth year of his late Majesty King George the Fourth, intituled "An Act for the Transportation of Offenders from Great Britain," it was amongst other things enacted, that it should be lawful for his Majesty, by and with the advice of his privy council, from time to time to appoint any place or places beyond the seas, either within or without his Majesty's dominions, to which felons and other offenders under sentence or order of transportation or punishment should be conveyed. And whereas, by an order made by the advice of his late Majesty's privy council, on the 23rd of June, 1824, his said late Majesty was pleased, in pursuance of the power so vested in him as aforesaid, to appoint New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land, and all islands adjacent thereto, to be places to which felons and other offenders then being, or thereafter to be, under sentence or order of trans- portation or punishment, should be conveyed under the provisions of the said recited act. And whereas, by the said act it was further enacted, that it should be lawful for his Majesty, by any order or orders in council, to declare his royal will and pleasure, that male offenders convicted in Great Britain, and being under sentence or order of transportation, should be kept to labour in any part of his Majesty's dominions out of England, to be named in such order or orders in council. And whereas, his late Majesty in pursuance of the powers so vested in him, was further pleased, by and with the advice aforesaid, by the order in council aforesaid, to declare his royal will and pleasure, that male offenders convicted in Great Britain, and being under sentence or order of transportation, should be kept to hard labour in his Majesty's colony of Bermuda : And whereas, by an Act of Parliament passed in the sixth year of the reign of his said late Majesty, intituled, " An Act for Punishing Offences committed by Transports — kept to labour in the Colonies, and better regulating the powers of Justices of the Peace in New South Wales," it was among other things enacted, that it should and may be lawful for his said late Majesty, by any order or orders to be by him from time to time for that purpose issued with the advice of his privy council, to appoint, or by any such order or orders in council to authorise the governor, lieutenant governor, or other person for the time being administering the government of any of his Majesty's foreign possessions, colonies, or plantations, and being under sentence or order of transportation, shall be sent or transported; and it was thereby enacted, that all such persons should, within the place or places to which in pursuance of any such order or orders in council they should or might be so sent or transported, be subject and liable to all such and the same law, rules, and regulations as were or should be in force in any such place or places with respect to convicts transported from Great Britain. ----------- And whereas it hath seemed fit to her Majesty, on the advice of her privy council, to revoke the said recited order in council, and to substitute in lieu thereof such other provisions as are hereinafter men- tioned. Now, therefore, in pursuance and exercise of the powers vested in her Majesty in council by the said recited acts of parliament, her Majesty, by and with the advice of her privy council, doth order, and it is hereby ordered, that upon and from the 1st day of August in this present year, 1840, the said recited orders in council of the 23rd day of June, 1824, and of the 11th day of November, 1825, shall be, and the same are hereby revoked, so far as respects any act, matter, or thing, to be done from and after the said 1st day of August, 1840, in the premises. And it is hereby further ordered by the the authority aforesaid, that from and after the 1st day of August, 1840, the island of Van Diemen's Land and Norfolk Island and the islands adjacent to and comprised in the government of Van Diemen's Land shall be the places to which felons and other offenders in the United Kingdom, then being or there- after to be under sentence or order of transportation, shall be conveyed under the provisions of the said recited act of the 5th year of the reign of his late Majesty King George the Fourth; and it is hereby further ordered, by the advice aforesaid, and in pursuance and exercise of the authority aforesaid, that male offenders convicted in the United Kingdom shall, from and after the said 1st day of August, 1840, in pursuance of the provisions of the said last recited act, be kept to hard labour in her Majesty's colony of Bermuda ; and it is further ordered, by the advice aforesaid, and in pursuance and exercise of the authority aforesaid, that from and after the 1st day of August, 1840, the respective governors, lieu- tenant governors, and other persons for the time being administering the government of any of her Majesty's colonies, shall, in pursuance of the provisions of the said recited Act of the sixth of the reign of his said Majesty, by proclamation to be by them respectively for that purpose issued, appoint the place or places within her Majesty's dominions to which any offender convicted in any such colonies, and being under sentence or order of transportation, shall be sent or transported, provided that neither the said colony of Bermuda, nor any of her Majesty's colonies in New Holland, or in the Southern Ocean, be so appointed for that purpose by any such proclamation as afore-said, other than the said island of Van Dieman's Land and Norfolk Island, and the islands adjacent to and comprised within the government of Van Dieman's Land; and the Most Noble the Marquis of Normanby, and the Right Honorable Lord John Russell, two of her Majesty's principal Secretaries of State, are to give time necessary instructions herein accordingly as to them may respectively appertain. WM. L. BATHURST.

Saturday 27 February 1841

South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA : 1839 - 1900) Saturday 27 February 1841 corrections New Colonial Regulations. A NEW edition of the "Rules and Regulations' for the colonial service, has been published by order of the Secretary of State for the Colonies. The following in a precis of its principal con- tents :— The "settled" colonies are thus enumerated in the order of their settlement:—Antigua, Bar- badoes, Montserrat, Nevis, St Kitt's, Tortola, Anguilla, Baliamas, Bermudas, Sierra Leone, St Helena, New South Wales, Van Diemen's Land, Western Australia, Southern Australia. The duration of appointments of all governors is limited to six years, extendable only under special circumstances. No Governor has power to give assent to acts of colonial legislatures for naturalizing aliens without authority previously obtained from the Secretary of State. No Governor can absent himself from his government without leave. The only furniture provided for Government houses at the public expense, is that for rooms for the reception of company on public days.

Friday 14 May 1841

The Sydney Herald (NSW : 1831 - 1842) (about) Previous issueFriday 14 May 1841 Order in Council.-Her Majesty has ap-Fix this text pointed the Port of Hamilton, in Bermuda, a free warehousing Port.

Tuesday 7 September 1841

Australasian Chronicle (Sydney, NSW : 1839 - 1843) Tuesday 7 September 1841 could be guaranteed to a portion of the colonists, if not perpetually, at least for a series of years of somewhat undefinable extent, those worthies wvho had arisen, and continued to rise, to marvellous importance amongst us, on the wreck and ruin of their fellow creatures, must inevitably and speedily fall back to their original obscurity; they are not now of any weight; no such necessity as was then pretended any longer exists. Now, matk a monstrous discrepancy, to the prejudice of this colony, in thre practical working of an act of parliament. In the hulks in England, a transpoyted felon under sentence of seven years is required by theinstructions (1839) of the home secretary of state to serve but two and a half to three and a half years, according to conduct; he is then set free, with this addition, that each man so discharged is provided with mileage money and a new suit of wearing apparel, Ito enable him to proceed decently to the place whence lie was banished. Life sentences are commuted unto six and a half to eight years' servitude; in like manner precisely the tame rules are in rigid observance in Bermuda, the men being sent home at the expiration of the respective periods mentioned (in other words, as they thus become free) at the public expense. In Van Diemen's Land the case is a little different, as from a recent notice in the Government Gazette it appears that conditional, and not absolute pardons are there Frauted at the ends of the periods of servitude which so this colony are indispensable to entitle the prisoners to tickets-of-leave only. As tire mew system under thatmostexcellent man, Captain llaconochie, in Norfolk Island, is merely on experiment, the principles of which open up hopes of much earlier freedom to the captives than that in force in any other p

Monday 7 November 1842

The Australian (Sydney, NSW : 1824 - 1848) Monday 7 November 1842 LATE ENGLISH NEWS. rFrom the ' Sunday, .Times,' July 3.] Breaking up ?of Parliament.— -Vo understand that Parliament is expoctod to rise about tho 20th of July.— -Brighton Gazette. ? -'Chatham;— Tho Tenedos frigate is ordered to bo fitted out as a convict hulk for Bermuda, as soon as possible, so that, she may arrive at her destination bofore the winter season sets in. The Cleopatra is expected to leave in a few days, and the Talbot will sail from Sheerness about Friday next for Portsmouth, whero she will remain a week or ten days before proceeding to China.

Thursday 10 November 1842

Launceston Advertiser (Tas. : 1829 - 1846) Thursday 10 November 1842 The Leicester Express, states that the Sir George Arthur, with government stores, and eighty convicts was shipwrecked off Bermuda in the early part of July.

Monday 14 November 1842

The Australian (Sydney, NSW : 1824 - 1848) Monday 14 November 1842 The Ina, from Hobart Town, reached London, after a passage of- 100 days. The Calcutta, from Hobart Town, arrived in England, had spoken the barque Sir George Ar-. thur, built at Hobart Town, on a voyage from London to Bermuda, with her crew in a Btate of mutiny, and had 'lent her one hand to assist in' steering her. News was afterwards received in London, that the Sir George Arthur had been wrecked on one of the reefs at Bermuda, all hands saved, except the captain and chief officer. — Colonial Times, Oct. 25,

Saturday 28 January 1843

South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA : 1839 - 1900) Saturday 28 January 1843 LATEST FROM ENGLAND. By the Arab, from London direct, one hundred and thirteen days out, we now have English news down to the 3rd of October. The topic engrossing the largest share of By the Arab, from London direct, one hundred and thirteen days out, we now have English news down to the 3rd of October. The topic engrossing the largest share of public attention, at the time of the Arab's departure, was the Queen's visit to Scotland, full particulars of which we are now enabled to subjoin. long way down the account - The second of the four steamers which receives at St Thomas's tbe mails from Kuiotn.ai.d which, like tho first, starts in 22 days from the depirtuie from Falmonlh, is destined for tbc Jamaica sta tion, and visits in succession Sun Juan (Porto Rico), Cape Hiylien, St Jago de Cuba, and Jamaica, and returns to St Thomas's in 14 day* 2 hours, having touched at tbe same places on her journey back. Tuis steamer will not, however, take tbe Jamaica out-mails but merely call for the correspondence; from that island. Tbe Jamaica out mails will be taken by the third steamer from St Thomas's, destined for the Havammh station, which will proceed at once to Jamaica, and then to Cape Antonio, Hnvnnnah, Nassau, und Bermuda, the voyage from St Thomas's to Ber muda being accomplished in 17 days 22 hours. The fourth of the steamers at St Thomas's is destined far tbe Bermuda station, performing her journey there and back in 12 days 20 hours, and is employed in receiving tbe home mails collected by other steamers, and the outward mails for Bermuda, if they arrive at St Thomas's before midnight on the 22nd day after tbe outward mail leaves Falmouth. For the tiansmiseion of untila to Mexico nsteamer i« stationed at Havann&b, where tbe mails will arrive in 29 days 12 hours after they have left England, and will proceed to Vera Cruz, and then to Tampioca, returning to Havar.nah is 26 dsys. The home mails from Havaunah having reached Bermuda in 40 days from (lie tirce when the outward mails left Fhl mouth, and tben col lected at St Thomas's ili 41 days 12 houis, they will all leave Bermuda in about 44 diya, and pro ceed direct to Southampton by a large steamer, the voyage occupying 16 days 12 hoin. For La guayre, for Chagres, touching at Santa Martha and Carthogena, and for Honduras, schooners tre to proceed respectively from St Thomas's, Jamaica, and Havannah.


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